WHAT'S NEW IN IPM: UPDATE OF 1999
Utah State University, 5305 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT 84322-5305
435-797-0776, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Test of Success (spinosad) against western cherry fruit fly on sour cherries 1999
Success is known as a naturalyte insecticide, which is relatively
soft on beneficial insects and mites. This material is undergoing registration
for use on cherries (sour & sweet) and registration is expected for 2000
or 2001. Success (spinosad 22.8%) was tested against western cherry fruit fly
(WCFF) (Rhagoletis indifferens) in northern Utah. The site was
a 2 acre block of sour cherry trees (variety Montmorency), at the Utah State
University, research farm in Kaysville, UT. The experimental design was randomized
complete block and consisted of 3 treatments with 3 replications. The treatments
were Guthion (azinphos methyl, 1.5 lbs/acre), Success (6 oz/acre), and untreated
check. The replications were 3 rows by 14 trees. The insecticides were applied
17 June and 1 July by airblast sprayer at 50 gallons per acre.
One hundred fruit were sampled from each of 10 trees in the center row of each replication, which left two guard trees at each end of the replication. Fruit were sampled 14 July and placed in coolers with ice for transport to the laboratory. The fruit were evaluated by cutting them open to search for WCFF larvae. Fruit with larvae or exit holes were considered infested.
Guthion and Success reduced fruit infestation versus the untreated check. However, percentage of fruit infested was 1.1% in the Success treatment. Because there is no tolerance for WCFF even low levels of infestation are not acceptable. Success may be more effective at higher rates, shorter treatment intervals, or applied as a dilute (100+ ga/acre) spray.
In future tests, Success should be applied more frequently (every 7-10 days) and at higher volume (at least 100 gallons/acre). Work in Washington during 1999 showed excellent results (no infested fruit) on sweet cherry with applications of Success at 7-day intervals and spray volumes of 100 gallons/acre.
Attract & kill trials in small orchards and home gardens in northern Utah 1999
Last Call-CMÒ (previously known as SireneCMÒ ) is a technique that uses an attractant, such as a pheromone and an insecticide combined in a viscous material (attract & kill technology), which can be applied by hand. This technique provides the ability to reduce insecticide residues on produce and reduce environmental contamination. The technique is currently specific for one pest at a time. In this case the material is a combination of codling moth pheromone and permethrin (a pyrethroid insecticide) combined in a black, tar-like material. This material is viscous, but not too thick, and is applied as small droplets, by hand with a small tube-style applicator. The pheromone attracts the male moths to the droplets and when the moths contact a droplet they receive a lethal dose of insecticide.
In 1999, Last Call-CM was tested in two small orchards (ca. 2 acres) and 14 home gardens in Box Elder, Cache, Davis, and Weber counties. If effective in small orchard and home garden situations Last Call could help to significantly reduce organophosphate use.
Kaysville Research Farm
Home Garden Sites (Box Elder, Cache, Davis, and Weber counties).
Possible new alternatives to Guthion for control of codling moth: all are
in need of testing.
Michael Reding, IPM Project Leader for tree fruit: 18 January 2000
The Food Quality Protection Act has prompted many producers of agri-chemicals to work on developing reduced-risk (soft) pesticides. Many of these new materials are being developed and tested against codling moth, which is the primary insect pest of apples and pears in Utah and other western states. However, most of these materials are in very early stages of development, there is not much information about them, and their availability for testing is limited. The following table lists some of the new materials that are being tested against codling moth. We would like to test these materials, but they are so new that they are difficult to get. When they become available will test them at the Kaysville research farm and in orchards of cooperating growers.
So far we have tested attract & kill technology (Last Call-CMÒ ) with mixed results (see accompanying report) and plan to test it again in 2000. In 2000, Last Call will not be tested as a stand alone product, but will be used in combination with Imidan as a first cover. The new Guthion label will not allow hand-gun applications and Imidan + Last Call may be a good alternative for small growers who don't have airblast sprayers.
Confirm (Rohm & Haas product) was registered in 1999, but appears to be a poor codling moth material as does kaolin (SurroundÒ , not listed). If we can get some of the other materials on the list below, we will test them.